Friday, August 7, 2015

Appendix: timeline of relevant events and people

late 9th century: Kalonymos family (Heb. “Shem Tov”), in Lucca, receive a ms. from the East, migrate to Mainz, Germany.
9th century: works of Pseudo-Dionysius (6th cent.) translated by John Scotus Eriugena.
C 1174: Bahir published in Provence.
Early 13th century. Eleazar ben Judah ben Kalonymus of Worms writes on Sefer Yetzirah, perhaps compiles Sefer Raziel.
Late 13th century: Moses de Leon writes or redacts the Zohar in Castile Abraham Abulafia teaches in Barcelona and Italy.
C. 1300. Joseph Gikatilla writes Sha'are Orah (Gates of Light) in Spain. Early 14th century: Catalan Ramon Llull writes Ars Brevis,
Early 14th century Italy: Menahem Recanati combines Abulafia with Zohar (Flavius Mithridates’ translation now lost); Great Parchment written.. 
Late 14th century Italy: Gate of Heaven written, anonymously. Francesco Petrarch publishes I Trionfi.
1427-1430. Jewish moneylenders allowed in Florence. A work available only in Aramaic influences Ghiberti’s “Gates of Paradise", probably due to influence of Ambrogio Traversari, general of Camalosean order.
C. 1436. Traversari re=translates ps.-Dionysius’s work in Florence.
1440. First mention of a card game called “triumphs,” Florence, a deck done for Sigusmundo Malatesta. Florence's hired military leader (along with Francesco Sforza) Also, Nicholas of Cusa finishes On Learned Ignorance.
1441-4, 1450s. Bonifacio Bembo workshop in Cremona paints earliest extant triumph (major arcana) decks for Duke Filippo Visconti of Milan and later either Sforza or Malatesta.: 11 extant in first (3 of which are theological virtues); some are like Petrarch’s Triumphs. The 1450s deck has 14 extant, with 6 more from 1460-1485, which may or may not be replacements.
1440s. Llull’s Ars Brevis appears in Italy. 1460s. Lodovico Lazzarelli studies Kabbalah in Padua, probably with Johanan Alemanno.
1474. Ars Brevis translated into Hebrew, probably by Guglielmo Raimondo Moncado, who c. 1484 becomes Flavius Mithridates.
1486. Mithridates translate numerous Kabbalist manuscripts for Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, who publishes 900 Theses same year, of which all copies ordered burned later by Pope.
1494. Matteo Boiardo dies, author of a design for an allegorical deck with 22 triumphs.
1497. Jews expelled from Florence.  
c. 1500, Milan. “Cary Sheet” done, with all or parts of 18 triumphs extant; all 22 now accounted for.
1505, June. Ferrara, first documented use of word “tarocchi”. Dec. 1505, word “taraux” in Avignon.
1516. Latin translation of Gates of Light by Paolo Ricci. 1517. Johann Reuchlin publishes On the Art of Kabbalah.
1518. Pietro Mainardi, University of Padua, publishes De Auditu Kabbalistico (Of Kabbalistic Report], a Llullian work.
1510-1530. Cornelius Agrippa writes Three Books on Occult Philosophy, published 1532.
1527. Teofilio Folengo in Venice publishes Caos del Triperuno, with first literary example of cartomancy using tarot trumps (major arcana).
1557. Catelin Geoffroy tarot deck in Lyons, first indication of precise “Marseille” order.
1558. Zohar published in Cremona and Mantua. 1562. Sefer Yetzirah and commentaries published, Mantua. .
1591, 1597. Moshe Cordovero’s work of 1548 Safed published in Venice.
1617-1624. Robert Fludd, English physician, publishes esoteric works with illustrations by De Bry family of Frankfurt.
1650s. Earliest extant Parisian tarot decks (Noblet [“Marseille I”], Vieville, Anonymous).
c. 1672-1730s, Marseille. Earliest “Marseille II” tarot (“Chosson”). 1760 Marseille, Conver produces his tarot.

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